Since ancient times, the pear has been revered as one of the best plants in the garden, along with the apple tree. According to the description, these 2 crops are similar, but growing a pear, caring for it is different from the agricultural technology of an apple tree. The pear is more thermophilic and does not tolerate low temperatures. But many plant varieties are parthenocarpic species, setting fruits without fertilization.
Popular varieties of pears
For gardeners, the choice of pear varieties depends on the purpose for which the fruit tree is grown and in which region. For fresh consumption, pears are needed at an early ripening period. Summer varieties ripen in July-August, among them it is preferable to plant:
- Early ripening;
These types of culture have tasty fruits, sweet and juicy, but they are stored for no more than 1-2 weeks. Among the autumn varieties that ripen from August to October, the best are Otradnenskaya, Bere Moskovskaya, Memory of Yakovlev. In the pulp of the fruit, sweetness is combined with a slight sourness. But pears are kept fresh for up to 1.5 months. They are suitable for preparing blanks for the winter.
Winter varieties are given attention by those who are trying to preserve the harvest until next spring, eating a vitamin product all winter. 1-2 trees of late ripening of varieties Conference, Saratovka, Kure are enough to provide themselves with fresh fruits for the whole winter.
The methods of propagation of fruit crops are both vegetative, seed or grafting. Their use depends on what they want to get as a result: a new plant with a set of positive qualities or keep the varietal characteristics of the old one.
The rootstock pear grows best from seed when frost-resistant varieties are selected for propagation. Seeds taken from early plant species can be placed directly in open ground. Winter can appear only through sowing seedlings. The seeds will be finally ready for planting in late autumn - early winter. They are soaked in warm water for 3 days, then mixed with wet sand, placed in a plastic bag. The material is stored at a temperature not lower than +5 degrees. As soon as the seedlings appear, the storage temperature is lowered to 0 degrees. They try to keep the sprouts in this form until spring.
The material is planted in the ground so that the sprouts reach a stem thickness of 1 centimeter. Then they are used for vaccination.
You can graft a pear to an apple tree, a quince, a hawthorn. The operation requires certain skills. But a beginner gardener can also master the usual vaccination. In this case, it is necessary that the scion and rootstock were of the same thickness of the cuttings. They should have at least 3-4 buds. Having made the same cuts on the scion and rootstock, connect them so that their cadmium coincides. It remains to tie the junction with a washcloth, and coat it with garden varnish on top. A regular adhesive plaster is suitable for fixing.
The butt is grafted when the thickness of the stock is 1.5-2.5 centimeters. The rootstock cut with bark and part of the wood should have a cut width equal to the thickness of the scion. Both cuttings are connected and tied.If the cuttings take root, then 2-3 shoots appear on them. The upper one is preserved, and the lower one is pinched, leaving 2-3 leaves. They also use such methods of inoculation as in the butt, behind the bark, and the kidney.
Procurement of breeding material begins in winter. Having broken off a young two-year-old branch without damaging the bark, they leave until April. Do not forget to tie a stick at the place of the breakage and wrap it with adhesive plaster. In the spring, all devices are removed, and the cutting is cut off. Having put the branches in the water, they are waiting for the appearance of a bump at the end of the cutting. In this case, the length of the roots should reach 6 centimeters. The rooted material is planted in the ground.
A box with wet soil is placed under the lower process on a tree. At the junction with the ground near the branch, cuts are made and sprinkled with compost. Constantly make sure that the cut has enough moisture. For the winter they cover with spruce branches. For the rooting of the cut to occur, you need to wait 2 years. Then they just transplant the shoot to a permanent place.
Features of growing pear
The growth, fruiting and longevity of fruit plants depend on the choice of a site in the garden for pears. The basis of pear longevity is laid at a young age of the tree, when the skeleton of the underground and aboveground parts of the plant is being formed.
The importance of lighting
Fruit crops bear fruit better in sunlit areas. Light is needed so that there is more sugar in the fruits. Trees in the shade often suffer from scab and other infections. But not all varieties tolerate extreme heat, so the best slopes will be northern, northeastern, northwestern and western.
So that the flowers are not damaged by frost, it is necessary to choose a site in the basin. It should be flat or slightly sloped.
The soil for the plant is suitable for black earth, slightly podzolized. But on sandy, heavy clay soils, the culture develops worse. Unsuitable for pears will be marshy, stony and saline soils. Before planting trees, check the depth of groundwater. They should be at a depth of 2 meters to the surface of the earth.
How to plant a tree correctly
To grow a pear, you need to pay special attention to planting the culture in the garden. The planting time, the quality of the planting material, the condition of the soil on the site will also be important.
Both spring and autumn are suitable for the procedure. In April, as soon as the snow melts, you can plant pears in the holes prepared in the fall. It is important that sap flow does not begin at this time, the buds are not preparing to bloom. Autumn planting will be successful until October 10 in areas with an early onset of winter. If the seedlings are purchased later, then they are dropped into a groove half a meter deep. Roots are especially well covered. Protect seedlings from frost and damage by rodents, covering them with brushwood or non-woven material on top. They are planted in the spring.
You can plant a pear in the summer, but with a closed root system, when the soil is preserved on the roots. The pear is in a container and spills well. They choose such days for planting in July, when it is cloudy and not hot.
Selection and preparation of a seedling
Seedlings are suitable for growing, which should have moist, without damage to the roots, an elastic trunk without flaws. Annual shoots can have 1-2 lateral shoots up to 12 centimeters long. It is necessary to choose biennial seedlings with branches up to 30 centimeters and roots of the same length.Before planting, slightly dried roots are dipped in water. You can also nourish the roots in a solution of honey, infusion of mullein... Need pruning of rotten and damaged roots.
If you need to transplant a plant from a container, then be sure to moisturize the soil well. The shoot is pulled out of the pot carefully, trying not to damage the clod of earth on the roots.
Choosing a landing site
In addition to good lighting and evenness of the area for pears, it is necessary to allocate enough space for the tree. The accumulation of groundwater and shading of the plant will lead to the fact that it will not develop and bear fruit well.
The culture loves nutritious soil, loose, permeable, with neutral acidity.
Planting pit preparation
Dig holes for seedlings in advance, 2-3 weeks in advance, in the fall with a spring planting. The upper fertile layer is folded to one side, and the lower to the other. It is then scattered into the aisles without using it when planting. The bottom is loosened, and then the place for driving the planting stake is determined. The optimal pit dimensions will be 50-70 centimeters deep and 75-100 wide.
Immediately before planting the pear in the open ground, mix 2-3 buckets of humus, 200-300 grams of mineral fertilizers with a nutrient layer and fill the pit by 3 quarters. On acidic soils, add 200 grams of slaked lime. Then a bucket of humus is poured in to prepare a mound for planting a plant.
Distance between seedlings
It is necessary to break up the area for pears taking into account what gap to leave between the trees. It is better to plant in rows with a distance of 4 to 5 meters, the seedlings are also separated from each other. After all, the young garden will grow, and the trees will need plenty of light, nutrition and moisture.
According to the step-by-step instructions, planting begins by placing the seedling in the hole, determining the position of the root collar. It is necessary to plant the plant so that the neck is 1-2 centimeters above the surface of the loose soil. In dense soil - at surface level. After that, they begin to fill the hole with earth, spreading the roots of the trees along the mound at the bottom. When planting, the seedling is constantly shaken so that the clods of earth are distributed between the roots.
Then, around the tree, the soil is pressed down with the movements of the sole from the edge of the hole to the trunk of the tree. It is necessary to make a roller around the seedling to mark the boundaries of the hole. Moisten the soil with water from a watering can, evenly distributing moisture. One hole takes up to 3-5 buckets of water. It is necessary to plant fruit crops on a cloudy day or in the evening.
Care after landing
To create a strong and powerful skeleton of a tree, it is necessary to properly care for the fruit crop. This includes not only the usual activities - watering, feeding, but also the formation of the crown of the tree, protection from pests and diseases. The rules of pear agrotechnics are simple, but they must be adhered to regularly.
Pears need hydration, especially during dry periods. Starting from planting, watered no more than 2-3 times per season. During the fruiting period, the need for moisture increases. In order not to water the pears often, a layer of mulch is placed in the trunk circle.
The soil around the tree is kept in this state constantly during dry periods, during wet seasons - 1 year. It is better to lay mulch on snow to retain moisture. In the fall, having dug up the trunk circle, plant feeding is carried out. It is impossible to dig deeply so as not to damage the roots. The mulch should not be close to the trunk of the tree.
In addition to basic fertilizers, proper care includes feeding with mullein diluted with water in a 1: 5 ratio, or bird droppings - 1:12. It is useful to first dilute organic fertilizers with water at a concentration of 1: 3, keep in a barrel for 3-5 days, and then bring to the desired proportion and water the fruit trees.
The first time they apply top dressing in May, when the buds bloom, and then after flowering. Under the tree, grooves are made into which mineral fertilizers are applied. They can be replaced with wood ash, 50 grams per bucket of water. For 2-3 running meters of the furrow, 1 bucket of nutrient solution will be needed.
To obtain rich harvests, a sanitary, forming pruning of the crown of the tree is carried out annually. In the spring, pruning is carried out, located on the trunk 40 centimeters from the ground. 1 peephole is left at the border, and 2 above with a distance of 25 centimeters between them. The branches of the first order are cut regularly by 20-30 centimeters. The trimming rate must be reduced every year. When the growth is at the level of 25-30 centimeters, then the branches are not shortened.
Crown shaping guidelines should be based on the age of the tree. In 4-5-year-old crops beginning to bear fruit, annual shoots are not shortened. Otherwise, you can lose fruit. All that remains is the work of thinning the crown. To do this, remove those branches that go inside the crown, cross, hang down. By removing part of the wood from two-year-old shoots, they cause a stronger growth in the tree.
Protecting pears from pests and diseases
In caring for fruit crops, protection from diseases and pests is one of the main places. Although pear varieties have been bred that are not afraid of infections, it is necessary to be able to carry out preventive measures in order to protect plants from the effects of pathogenic microorganisms.
To prevent the development of diseases in a pear, you must:
- To carry out fertilization, watering, tree pruning on time.
- Weed and loosen the trunk circle regularly.
- After harvesting, remove fallen fruits, leaves, cut branches, burning them.
- Whiten tree trunks to protect against sunburn during winter and spring.
- Spray with a 3% solution of copper sulfate before bud break and after leaf fall.
The likelihood of diseases of the fruit crop and damage by pests is reduced when the proper care of the plant is carried out.
Types of pear diseases and protection measures
Pear trees need protection from:
These fungal infections affect the stems, fruits, leaves of the plant. It is necessary to deal with them with fungicidal preparations. In this case, the affected parts of the tree are cut off and burned. More terrible than pathogenic fungi is bacterial cancer, which can completely destroy a pear plantation. Cutting out areas of the tree damaged by cancer, treat them with fungicides and fill them with garden varnish.
The use of biological products to protect pears from pests
To combat pests of fruit crops - aphids, spider mites, moth moths, you can use biological products. The trees are sprayed with tobacco infusion throughout May. For 5 liters of water, 1 kilogram of waste makhorka or tobacco dust is taken. They insist for 24 hours, then put on fire and boil for an hour. The settled solution after straining must be diluted. A bucket of water needs 0.5 liters. Add another 100 grams of laundry soap and process the pears.
In good, calm weather, treatment with Fitosporin M, Novosil and green soap is effective.
Harvesting and storage
Pears are harvested when they reach technical maturity. It depends on the ripening period of the fruit. Often, pear trees do not begin to give yields immediately after planting. You need to know for what year the variety bears fruit in order to wait for the harvest. Winter varieties of culture are laid for storage. The fruits are sorted, removing rotten and damaged ones. They can be used for blanks. The rest of the fruits are laid out in boxes, which are placed in basements and cellars, where the air temperature will be within + 1 ... -2 degrees. Fruit bearing of pears will decrease every year.
Therefore, it is necessary to choose for planting those crops that are known from how many years they will give rich harvests and what is the duration of their life.
Is it possible to plant one pear on the site
In a summer cottage, it is not possible to plant many pears with a small area, but two are necessary. If the varieties are not self-pollinated, then one pear will not produce a crop. She needs pollinators nearby. Parthenocarpic species are found among the culture. These are Bere Zimnyaya, In Memory of Yakovlev, Chizhovskaya. Such a tree and one will give good yields of delicious pears. Most varieties need trees nearby to help the fruit appear.