Inexperienced gardeners and lovers of fruit and berry bushes are often occupied with questions about when and how to plant currants in a garden plot in order to achieve a good harvest and comfort for a plant growing in certain climatic conditions. The quality of life of a shrub and its productivity depend on the characteristics of the planting material, on persistent adherence to the rules and timing of planting, compliance with standards for caring for currants.
How to choose healthy and strong seedlings
Careful selection and examination of the appearance of blackcurrant seedlings is the key to plant health and the creation of prerequisites for good yields in the future.You need to purchase seedlings in specialized stores with available documentation for a particular variety of this crop.
In any case, the planting material must have:
- developed and powerful root system. Roots with at least two branches, at least 30 centimeters long;
- moist, without any damage, rhizomes;
- smooth bark throughout the root system, without dry, old and shriveled shoots.
Things to prepare before boarding
Before planting and purchasing planting material, it is necessary to decide and prepare the landing site itself. For black currants of any varietal accessory, an area with significant sunlight, located in a lowland with sufficiently moist soil, is suitable.
Such preparation will have a good effect:
- on the development of seedlings and rooting of cuttings;
- on the life of the planting material - the plants planted in the lowlands will be protected from the winds;
- on flowering shrubs without the formation of barren flowers;
- on the yield of currants - the collection of berries will be quite high;
- on the size and taste of the berries - they will be large and sweet.
The soil on the backyard should be slightly acidic and loose.
Optimal dates for disembarkation
There are many opinions about in what month and when it is better to plant currants - in spring or autumn, and the most versatile ones. Someone believes that planting a currant bush can be carried out at any time. And some gardeners are sure that seedlings take root better during the autumn planting.
Someone tried to put a branch cut off from a bush in water, after which, after about 30 days, a root system appeared in the currant, and the plant was planted in the ground in the summer. In fact, the most suitable time for planting currants is the autumn months - September and October.
The root system of currants, planted in autumn, thrives and grows even before the beginning of winter. And after the so-called wintering, the shrub is already sprouting and yielding crops.
Experts in this field confirm the fact that the shrub is excellently established at one time or another of the year. However, in order to have a good harvest, it is still recommended to plant a crop in the fall, and not in the summer, in August, and not in the spring.
How landing time depends on the region
Planting of black currants is carried out on the eve of the first frosts, since early placement of currants in the soil can provoke the growth of new shoots and swelling of the buds. And this threatens with partial loss of the crop.
Late planting of planting material will not allow the plant to take root, which will lead to its death in frosty time.
The climatic conditions available in Russia must correspond to the indicated dates for planting shrubs in the autumn period:
- in Central Russia, planting of currants should be carried out in early October;
- in the Leningrad region - at the end of September;
- in the territories of Siberia and the Urals, planting is recommended in mid-September;
- in the southern regions - in late October and early November.
Landing methods and technology
The vital activity of the plant and its yield will depend on the correctly selected method of planting black currant and compliance with its technology.
Preparing the soil mixture
To plant currants in open ground, it is necessary to prepare a soil mixture:
- from phosphorus components, within 60 grams;
- potassium supplements, at the rate of about 30 grams;
- from wood ash, within 120 grams.
The site for planting currants should be different:
- sufficient illumination;
- not swampy, but moist soil;
- certain protection (in the form of, for example, a fence) from negative weather phenomena - heavy rains, winds;
- medium loamy soil.
The best neighborhood for black currants will be considered onions, which can protect the culture from a pest in the form of a kidney mite.
Also, garlic, honeysuckle, Jerusalem artichoke will get along with fruit and berry bushes.
Layout and depth of the planting pit
Before burrowing into the soil, the seedling is processed, freed from dry roots, relieved of leaves; planting material is not planted without roots.
The planting technology of the described crop is supported by the step-by-step instructions below:
- Align the site, mark places for planting holes; dig them out, lay the compost component and ash on the bottom. Fill the well with some water and wait until it is absorbed. Plant annual seedlings in pits buried by 30 centimeters, two-year-old - by 50 centimeters.
- Place the seedling in a hole at an angle of 45 degrees, straighten the roots, deepen the root neck by 10-12 centimeters.
- Cover the plant with earth, tamp, water.
- After that, sprinkle the soil under the seedlings with a peat component, dry grass, leaves.
This planting scheme belongs to the classic method of planting black currants.
There are other ways of schematically deepening the described culture:
- Fan planting method (the plant is placed in a hole in a strictly upright position, it literally weighs on trellises).
- The trellis planting method (all buds and young shoots are removed from the plant, planted vertically using the scheme of the classical method).
Distance between bushes
Black currants should be planted, keeping the distance between adjacent shrubs of 1.5-3 meters. This method will allow the culture to develop normally and increase yields.
Proper care of a young bush after planting
For better survival, after placing the seedlings in the soil, you must:
- Mulch the soil layer with a compost component, peat.
- Sprinkle sand over the holes to prevent the soil from hardening.
- Watering with warm water.
- Hilling seedlings before frost.
- Before the onset of cold weather, cover the currants with a special film.
Upon the arrival of spring, for a quick awakening of the culture, the covering material must be removed from the plants, and the ground near the bushes must be loosened.
Recommendations for novice gardeners
You can achieve high yields and large fragrant currant berries by following the recommendations and tips below:
- To increase the yield on a personal plot, several types of black currant should be planted at once, with different periods of flowering and fruiting.
- Determine the so-called "spacious living space" for shrubs, that is, plant currant bushes no closer than 1 meter from each other.
- Feed the plant with a special starch-based mixture.
- Carry out regular watering.
- Take care of the health of the bushes - remove the affected plants and all its parts, and treat the plant, especially after wintering, with hot water from a watering can.